We used clinically acquired 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted and 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI of 148 patients (median age 23 years [range 2–55 years]; 47% female) with histologically verified FCD at 9 centers to train a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier. Images were initially deemed MRI-negative in 51% of patients, in whom intracranial EEG determined the focus. For risk stratification, the CNN incorporated bayesian uncertainty estimation as a measure of confidence. To evaluate performance, detection maps were compared to expert FCD manual labels. Sensitivity was tested in an independent cohort of 23 cases with FCD (13 ± 10 years). Applying the algorithm to 42 healthy controls and 89 controls with temporal lobe epilepsy disease tested specificity.
We trained a surface-based linear discriminant classifier that uses T1-weighted (morphology) and T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)/T1 (intensity) features. The classifier was trained on 60 patients with TLE (mean age 35.6 years, 58% female) with histologically verified hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Images were deemed to be MRI negative in 42% of cases on the basis of neuroradiologic reading (40% based on hippocampal volumetry). The predictive model automatically labeled patients as having left or right TLE. Lateralization accuracy was compared to electroclinical data, including side of surgery. Accuracy of the classifier was further assessed in 2 independent TLE cohorts with similar demographics and electroclinical characteristics (n = 57, 58% MRI negative).
An in-house implementation of deep convolutional neural networks (V-Net) for brain extraction (removal of skull, dura mater, and cerebellum) using either T1-weighted alone or in conjunction with T2-weighted FLAIR MRI images in malformations of cortical development.